Cover & Table

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INDONESIAN ESSENTIALS

the best grammar guide to Indonesian for foreign learners

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INDRA SONNY TJAN

An educator and official translator with about 40 years of experience teaching Indonesian to more than 5,000 expat executives from more than 50 different countries. He has translated about 200,000 pages of legal, business and other documents from Indonesian into English and vice-versa. www.tjansietek.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AUTHOR’S PREFACE

 

Indonesian is the fifth most widely spoken language in the world after Chinese, English, Spanish and Arabic.

The book you are holding in your hand is the result of fourteen years of research and development. It has been field-tested for six years in Jakarta and is now fully refined and ready to be released to the world business community. It is my sincere pleasure to be the first to attempt to fulfill the urgent need for such a textbook and such a method of teaching Indonesian. Here is what some of my former students have said after using this book under my guidance:

His book, Indonesian Essentials, together with the “Reading and Conversation Books” for beginners and intermediates I have found to be of a consistently high standard. The progression through the book and lessons has been clear and uncluttered, easy to follow with excellent explanations and examples.

Bapak Indra himself teaches the subject with a great deal of enthusiasm, even after 14 years of teaching the subject, when most other teachers would have become bored and boring.

I strongly recommend both the course books and Bapak Indra to any expatriate wishing to learn Bahasa Indonesia.

John Young, Production and Planning Control Supervisor

PT Airfast Indonesia

 

Mr Indra Sonny, the author of Indonesian Essentials, is the most ardent and reliable teacher of Bahasa Indonesia I have ever met.

I knew that he was working hard on the texts some 2 years ago when I was his Bahasa student. I would like to heartily congratulate him on the beautiful work he completed in spite of his tight schedule as a teacher, interpreter, as well as a translator.

Reflecting his sharpness in appreciation of the language, his book is full of new sense and useful information. This well-designed textbook, I believe, will surely benefit the learners of Bahasa Indoensia very much, especially with the preciseness and simplicity in its expression.

Yukinobu Sato, President, PT Ajinomoto Indonesia

Close to my departure from Indonesia I would like to let you know how much I have enjoyed my Indonesian language lessons I got from your organization and notably yourself.

You have not only enhanced my language skills, through your efficient and analytical methods, but have also given me very interesting insights into the Indonesian culture as well. Both have contributed considerably to the quality of my life in Indonesia. I thank you for that and wish you all the best with future developments in the field of language training.

H.J. Lobeek, Representative for Indonesia, DHV Consultants

 

With respect to my teaching performance, another student of mine writes as follows:

Jakarta, July 15, 1986

 

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN

 

This is to serve as a technical assessment and professional reference for Mr Indra Sonny.

I have been taking lessons from Mr Indra for one month and have the highest regard both for his command of the English language and his ability to teach Bahasa Indonesia. I have learned foreign languages in the past (Arabic particularly) and I find that my progress with Bahasa Indonesia is much more rapid than that I have previously experienced. This relates to the structure of the language itself, of course. However, equally important are the very efficient teaching methods employed by Mr Indra. His lessons are always thought out and aimed at specific problems which, in his experience, have troubled previous students. Although the lessons are well-structured, they retain sufficient flexibility to concentrate on technical terminology, social interaction, or other situations the new expatriate is likely to experience.

Mr Indra has a very good knowledge of English phrases and terminology and this factor is important in ensuring that questions are answered quickly and completely and that a rapid learning curve is maintained.

In summary I have no hesitation in recommending Mr Indra quickly to anyone planning to study Bahasa Indonesia.

Yours faithfully,

Menno Wiebe, Geological Manager, Bow Valley

 

REFERENCES:

 

1.     Badudu, J.S.. Inilah Bahasa Indonesia yang Benar III. PT Gramedia: 1989

2.     Badudu, J.S.. Inilah Bahasa Indonesia yang Benar II. PT Gramedia: 1986

3.     Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Tata Bahasa Baku Indonesia. Perum Balai Pustaka: 1988

4.     Gonda, J.. Linguistik Bahasa Nusantara. PN Balai Pustaka: 1988

5.     Kridalaksana, Harimurti. Beberapa Prinsip Leksem dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Kanisius: 1988

6.     Purwo, Bambang Kaswanti. Deiksis dalam Bahasa Indonesia. PN Balai Pustaka: 1984

7.     Pusat Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. Pedoman Umum Pembentukan Istilah. Pusat Bahasa: 2000

8.     Pusat Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. Petunjuk Praktis Berbahasa Indonesia. Pusat Bahasa: 2000

9.     Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa (P3B) Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Bahan Penyuluhan Bahasa Indonesia. P3B: 1996

10.  Tellings, A. Ed. Schmidgall, & Stevens, Alan M. Contemporary Indonesian English Dictionary. Ohio University Press: 1981

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS FOR THE SECOND EDITION

 

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS FOR THE FIRST EDITION

 

 

I am indebted to many, many participants of our Indonesian language courses during the period of 1985 to 1993, particularly in the first years of the writing of the book. Particular gratitude goes to Mr and Mrs Allsop, Mr Anthony Klok and Mr Sulaiman Dufford for their invaluable comments and corrections of the English examples and explanations. And to the many others who have contributed directly or indirectly to the success of this program, my profound thanks. Most of all, to my loving and devoted wife, Lanawaty Johanes, I owe acknowledgement for her diligent secretarial services, in particular, her typing of every draft from beginning to end.

 

Thank you all.

 

Jakarta, September 1993

 

 

Indra Sonny Tjan

 

 

 

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INDONESIAN LANGUAGE

 

 

Origin

 

Bahasa Melayu, i.e., the language of all the Malay people

 

Historical Development

 

Bahasa Indonesia was officially adopted as the only official language of the Indonesian peoples during the Youth Congress of October 28, 1928, at which time the declaration of need for nationwide dissemination of bahasa Indonesia was incorporated into the famous Youth Pledge of that year.

 

The Vocabulary System

 

The vocabulary and grammatical base is bahasa Melayu, with extensive vocabulary drawn from the Dutch, English, Arabic and Sanskrit languages, and from a variety of the over 400 local dialects.

 

Grammatical Structure

 

The Indonesian language was adopted with the conscious intent to unify the far-flung peoples and ethnic groups of the Indonesian archipelago, which comprises 13,770 full pledged islands, and over 60,000 smaller entities. The language was initially designed with a very simple system of grammar, yet incorporating the possibility of grammatical refinement as a modern Indonesian literature developed, and as the educational standards of all the people were raised. A major simplification of the phonetic and spelling system was inaugurated on August 16, 1972. The grammar and spelling in this book follow the latest developments in the evolution of the language, which is now the fifth most widely spoken in the world.

 

 

 

 

Table OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER

SUBJECT

PAGE

 

1.

I

No INFLECTION in Indonesian

1

2.

II

The Alphabet

2

3.

III

Personal Pronouns

4

4.

IV

Helping Words PART I: to be

8

5.

V

Helping Words PART II: the

10

6.

VI

Helping Words PART III: a/an

11

7.

VII

Helping Words PART IV: do/does/did

13

8.

VIII

Helping Words PART V: have/has/had

15

9.

IX

Helping Words: SUMMARY

16

10.

X

Continents, Countries, Languages & Inhabitants

17

11.

XI

Greetings and Partings

19

12.

XII

Wishes & Congratulations

20

13.

XIII

bukan, tidak, tidak ada & jangan

21

14.

XIV

bukan as a Tag-Question

23

15.

XV

Negative Statements: more about tidak

24

16.

XVI

Word Order of Compounds

26

17.

XVII

Plural Forms

30

18.

XVIII

The Degrees of Comparison

33

19.

XIX

Yes-No Questions & the Suffix -kah

35

20.

XX

Question-Word Questions (I)

37

21.

XXI

Question-Word Questions (II)

39

22.

XXII

Prepositions & Prepositional Phrases

42

23.

XXIII

Verbs & Prepositions

46

24.

XXIV

Numeral, the Date & the Time

48

25.

XXV

Adverbs, Adverbials and Conjunctions

54

26.

XXVI

ber- Verbs (I)

58

27.

XXVII

me- Verbs (I)

61

28.

XXVIII

me- Verbs (II)

65

29.

XXIX

The Prefix se-

73

30.

XXX

The Prefix pe-

75

31.

XXXI

The Confix pe- -an

77

32.

XXXII

The Confix per- -an

79

33.

XXXIII

The Pronoun IT

81

34.

XXXIV

The Prefix memper-

82

35.

XXXV

The Passive Voice

86

36.

XXXVI

the Passive Voice with the Adverbs of Aspect

88

37.

XXXVII

ber- Verbs (II) & Object Questions (II)

89

38.

XXXVIII

prefix ber- (III)

91

39.

XXXIX

Object Questions (III)

92

40.

XL

The Meaning of the Word that

94

41.

XLI

Yang

95

42.

XLII

Relative Clauses: using yang

99

43.

XLIII

-Nya, Dia, Ia & Mereka

101

44.

XLIV

ter-, ter- -kan, ter- -i

104

45.

XLV

The Suffix -an

106

46.

XLVI

ke- -an, and (the prefix) ke-

109

47.

XLVII

The Confix ber- -an

114

48.

XLVIII

Adverbs & Indefinite Pronouns

116

49.

XLIX

The Particles -lah & pun

117

50.

L

The Articles sang, sri, hang, dang; para & si

119

51.

LI

Reciprocity

121

52.

LII

Direct & Indirect Speech

122

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX A

MOST COMMONLY USED Verbs

 

A.   Plain Verbs:

 

bangun       to get up

datang        to come

duduk         to sit (down), to be seated

gagal          to fail

hidup          to live; to be alive; to be on (of a lamp, engine, AC)

hilang         to be gone; to be lost; to miss

ikut             to join

ingat           to remember

ingin           to wish

jatuh           to fall

kalah          to lose; to be defeated

kawin          to be married

keluar         to go out

kembali       to be back; to go back; to get back; to return

kenal          to know (somebody)

lahir            to be born

lari              to run

lewat           to pass (by)

lupa            to forget

maju           to move ahead; to advance

makan        to eat

mandi         to take a bath; to have a bath; to bathe

masak        to cook

masuk        to come in

mati            to die; to be dead; to be off (of a lamp, engine, AC)

menang      to win

minum        to drink

minta          to ask (for)

mohon        to request

mundur       to retreat to move back

naik            (1) to go up (of prices); (2) (to go) by (naik taksi= (to go) by taxi)

paham        to understand

pecah         to break; to be broken

pergi           to go

pindah        to move to another place

pulang        to come home; to go home

rugi             to lose (money in business)

sampai       to arrive

singgah      to make a stopover

suka           (1) to like; (2) to become fond of

tahan          to stand; to hear

tahu            to know (something)

tenggelam   (1) to drown; (2) to sink

terbang       to fly

terbit           to rise (of the sun)

tiba             to arrive (=more formal than sampai)

tidur            to sleep

tinggal        (1) to live; (2) to stay

tumbuh       to grow (usually of trees)

turun           (1) to go down; (2) to get down, to descend; (3) to get off; (4) to drop

 

B.   BER- VERBS

 

belajar              to learn

bekerja             to work

berangkat         to depart; to leave

berasa              to feel

berbicara          to speak; to talk

berbuat             to act; to do

berdagang        to trade

berdarah           to bleed

berdiri               to stand

bergaul             to get along, to associate

bergerak           to move (by one self)

berguna            to be useful

berhasil             to succees; to be successfull

berhenti            to stop, to cease

berjaga             to stand guard

berjalan             to walk

berkaca            to look at oneself in the mirror

berkata             to say

berkeringat        to sweat, to perspire

berlatih             to practise; to go on training

bermain            to play

bermimpi          to dream

bernama           to be named; to be called (as)

berpesan          to leave a message

bertanya           to ask

bertemu            to meet

berteriak           to shout

 

C.   ME- VERBS

 

melarang, larang                 to prohibit

melembur, lembur               to work overtime

melempar, lempar               to throw

melepas, lepas                    to release

melihat, lihat                        to see

memakai, pakai                   to use; to wear

memaksa, paksa                 to force

memancing, pancing           to fish

memanggang, panggang     to barbecue

memanggil, panggil             to call

memasang, pasang             to install

membaca, baca                  to read

membalas, balas                 to reply to

membawa, bawa                 to carry

membeli, beli                      to buy

memberi, beri                      to give

membuang, buang              to throw

membuat, buat                    to make

membuka, buka                  to open

memesan, pesan                 to order (goods)

memilih, pilih                       to choose

memotong, potong              to cut

menantang, tantang             to challenge

menarik, tarik                      to pull

mencapai, capai                  to reach

mencari, cari                       to look for

mencat, cat                         to paint

mencatat, catat                   to record (in writing)

mencuci, cuci                      to wash

mendaki, daki                     to climb

mendapat, dapat                 to get

mendengar, dengar             to hear

mendorong, dorong             to push

menengok, tengok              to look

menerima, terima                to receive

mengambil, ambil                to fetch

mengecer, ecer                   to retail

mengejar, kejar                   to chase

mengetuk, ketuk                  to knock on, or at

mengganti, ganti                 to change

menggoreng, goreng           to fry

menggunting, gunting          to cut (with a pair of scissors)

menghemat, hemat              to save

menghitung, hitung              to count

mengikat, ikat                     to tie

mengira, kira                       to guess

mengirim, kirim                    to send

mengisi, isi                          to fill

mengolah, olah                   to process

menguji, uji                         to examine

menikah, nikah                    to get married

menjadi, jadi                       to become

menjaga, jaga                     to guard

menjahit, jahit                      to sew

menjawab, jawab                 to answer

menjual, jual                        to sell

menolong, tolong                to help

menukar, tukar                    to exchange

menulis, tulis                       to write

menutup, tutup                    to close; to shut

menyahut, sahut                  to reply

menyala, nyala                    to go a flame

menyalin, salin                    to copy

menyangkal, sangkal           to deny

menyanyi, nyanyi                 to sing

menyapa, sapa                   to greet

menyapu, sapu                   to sweep

menyebut, sebut                 to mention

menyela, sela                      to interrupt

menyimpan, simpan            to store

menyisir, sisir                      to comb

menyuruh, suruh                 to order (someone)

merakit, rakit                       to assemble

merancang, rancang            to design

merasa, rasa                       to feel

merebus, rebus                   to boil