Control group 

1.             The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, fifth edition  (2002), Oxford University Press, Oxford

 

Arti kata “control” di kolom 2 halaman 506, yang khusus membahas soal eksperimen:

a standard of comparison for checking inferences drawn from an experiment, specifically a patient, specimen etc., similar to the one(s) being investigated but not subjected to the same treatment.”

 

2.             Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language (1996), Gramercy Books, New York

 

Di halaman 442: control group= (in an experiment or clinical trial) a group of subjects closely resembling the treatment group in many demographic variables but not receiving the active medication or factor under study and thereby serving as a comparison group when treatment results are evaluated.

 

3.      Business Research Methods edisi ke-7 (2003), susunan William G. Zigmund, terbitan South-Western, Mason, Ohio.

 

Halaman 735, bagian Glossary of Terms

 

Control group: a group of subjects who are exposed to the control condition in an experiment—that is, they are subjects not exposed to the experimental treatment.

 

 

4.      Business Research Methods, 9th edition (2006), susunan Donald R. Cooper & Pamela S. Schinder, terbitan McGraw-Hill, Singapura.

 

Halaman 707, bagian Glossary: control group= a group of participants that is not exposed to the independent variable being studied but still generates a measure for the dependent variable.

 

5.      National Cancer Institute, http://www.cancer.gov/templates/db_alpha.aspx?print,

 

Dictionary of Cancer Terms

 

Control group= in a clinical trial, the group that does not receive the new treatment being studied. This group is compared t the group that receives the new treatment to see if the new treatment works.

 

6.      Encarta, http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary-1861688285/control_group.html

 

Control group (plural control groups)= untreated subjects used as a test benchmark: in an experiment, the group of test subjects left untreated or unexposed to some procedure and then compared with treated subjects in order to validate the results of the test.

 

7.      Encyclopedia of Medicine (1991), susunan the American Medical Association, terbitan Random House, New York.

 

Di kolom 3, halaman 306, ensiklopedi ini memberikan contoh penerapan controlled trial dan perlakuan terhadap control group:

 

How it is done

In a typical controlled drug trial, a randomly selected sample of patients with the illness that the drug is thought to cure is split into two carefully matched groups. One group is given a normal course f the drug—for example, a pill to be taken every day. The other patients-called the control group—are given an identical course of treatment, except that their pills are “dummy,” or placebo, tablets containing none of the drug being tested, but only an inert substance such as starch. Alternatively, the control group may be given a well-established drug treatment but with the drug disguised to appear identical to the test drug.